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Furfural kemikari kemikari

Furfural (C4H3O-CHO), inonziwo 2-furaldehyde, inonyanyo kuzivikanwa nhengo yemhuri yeva furan uye sosi yeiyo mamwe hunyanzvi hwakakosha furani. Iyo isina mvura isina mvura (inofashaira poindi 161.7 ° C; giravhiti yakatarwa 1.1598) inoenderana nekusviba pakusangana nemhepo. Iyo inonyunguduka mumvura kusvika padanho re8.3 muzana pa20 ° C uye inonyatsonzwisisika nedoro uye ether.

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 Chikamu chemakore angasvika zana chakaratidza nguva kubva mukuwanikwa kwefabhuru murabhoritari kusvika kune yekutanga kugadzirwa kwekutengesa muna 1922. Kubudirira kweindasitiri kunotevera kunopa muenzaniso wakanaka kwazvo wekushandisa kwemaindasitiri zvisaririra. Corncobs, oat hulls, huni dzemakonzo, hull hulls, uye bagasse ndizvo zvakakura zvigadzirwa zvakasvibirira, kuzadzikiswa kwegore rino kunovimbisa kuenderera mberi kwekuwanikwa. Mukugadzirwa kwekugadzira, yakawanda yezvinhu zvakasvibirira uye inosudurudza sulfuric acid yakanyoroveswa pasi pekumanikidzwa mumadhiza mahombe anotenderera. Iyo furfural inoumbwa inobviswa ichienderera nehutsi, uye yakasimbiswa ne distillation; iyo distillate, pakudzvanywa, inoparadzaniswa kuita maviri matanda. Iyo yepasi yakatetepa, inosanganisira yakanyorova furfural, yakaomeswa neyekutsvaira distillation kuti uwane furfural yeashoma 99 muzana kuchena.

Furfural inoshandiswa seyakagadziriswa sarudzo yekuchenesa mafuta uye rosin, uye kugadzirisa hunhu hwedhiziri uye chinokanganisa chinodzosera matura. Inoshandiswa zvakanyanya mukugadzirwa kweasina-yakasungwa hasha mavhiri uye yekuchenesa kwe butadiene inodiwa mukugadzirwa kweyakagadzirwa rabha. Kugadzirwa kwenylon kunoda hexamethylenediamine, iyo furfural yakakosha sosi. Kuunganidzwa ne phenol kunopa furfural-phenolic resins kune akasiyana mashandisiro.

Kana mhute yehunhu uye hydrogen ichipfuura pamusoro pechigadziro chemhangura patembiricha yakakwira, furfuryl doro inogadzirwa. Ichi chakakosha chinobva chinoshandiswa muindasitiri yemapurasitiki kugadzirwa kwesementi isingadziviriri ngura uye zvinhu zvakaumbwa. Iyo yakafanana hydrogenation yeiyo furfuryl doro pamusoro pe nickel catalyst inopa tetrahydrofurfuryl doro, kubva kune ayo akatorwa akasiyana esters uye dihydropyran.

 Mukuita kwayo se aldehyde, furfural inobata yakasimba yakafanana ne benzaldehyde. Nekudaro, inoitika kuCannizzaro reaction mune yakasimba aqueous alkali; inoderera kune furoin, C4H3OCO-CHOH-C4H3O, pasi pesimba re potassium cyanide; inoshandurwa kuita hydrofuramide, (C4H3O-CH)3N2, nekuita kweammonia. Nekudaro, furfural inosiyana zvakanyanya kubva kune benzaldehyde munzira dzinoverengeka, idzo autoxidation inoshanda semuenzaniso. Pamusoro pekuratidzwa nemhepo pakushambidzwa kwemukati, furfural yakashatiswa uye yakanamatira kuita formic acid uye formylacrylic acid. Furoic acid ndeye chena crystalline yakasimba inobatsira sebhakitiriya uye inochengetedza. Ester ayo zvinonhuwira zvinwiwa zvinoshandiswa sezvinhu zvinonhuwira uye zvinonhuwira.


Post nguva: Aug-15-2020